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Diabetes diagnosis - How do I know if I'm diabetic?

Diabetes mellitus is a disease of multiple causes characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with problems in carbohydrate metabolism because of defects in insulin action, insulin secretion or both. This syndrome is frequently correlated with long term problems for organs like heart, kidneys, eyes and blood vessels. More than 50% of all patients with diabetes do no exhibit any symptoms at all until diagnosed. Hence it becomes imperative for earlier diabetes diagnosis than later.

You can watch this video for information in Hindi on how diabetes diagnosis is done.

Who should check for diabetes?

For Indians ideally all the individuals above 30 years of age should be screened for diabetes. If you are positive for any one or more following risk factors, then you ought to be tested sooner regardless of your age: 
  • You have diabetes in the family such as parents, grand parents.
  • You are overweight or obese where your body mass index is more than 24 kg/m2 or possess waist circumference a lot more than 90 cm in males and more 80 cm females.
  • You have high blood pressure more than 130/80 mmHg or getting treatment for hypertension.
  • You have high cholesterol levels 
  • You are living sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity
  • You had gestational diabetes
  • You have history of heart disease
  • You have History of PCOS  (polycystic ovarian syndrome)

How do you understand if I'm diabetic?
If you're experiencing any of the following symptoms and falls under the category above, then the probability of diabetes is high.

Diabetes symptoms
  • Frequent urination
  • Regular hunger
  • Weight loss in spite of frequent hunger
  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Skin allergy or itching
  • Frequent urogenital infections including urinary tract infections (UTI) and yeast vaginitis
  • Delayed healing of wounds

In Indians, Type 2 diabetes occurs at least a decade earlier compared to other major ethnic groups. Regular health checkup of individuals allows medical diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes at an earlier stage and thus appropriate management can be instituted. In addition, it provides an opportunity for screening of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk elements and the steps for their control

Diagnosis for Type 2 Diabetes in Children

Children and adolescents below 18 years should be tested for diabetes if they are 1.2 times overweight than their ideal body weight and have the following risk factors:
  • Family background of type 2 diabetes in rst degree relatives
  • Signs of insulin resistance
  • High blood circulation pressure
  • High cholesterol amounts
  • PCOS 
you can watch the video on diabetes symptoms

How to diagnose diabetes?

An individual who is complaining the above symptoms may take random blood sugar level test. Compare the test results are compare with the sugar level chart established by American Diabetic Association and WHO and if the values are higher than 200 mg/dL then your person is advised to give fasting blood sugars sample and post prandial blood sugar test. If the fasting blood sugar levels and post prandial blood sugar exceeds the values as stipulated in fasting blood sugar levels chart, then the person is preferred for Oral Glucose Tolerance test (OGTT) where the person is usually given oral glucose and its bloodstream samples are taken at an interval of 2 hours. Glycosylated (glycated) haemoglobin (HbA1c) is also recommended for diagnosis.

Sugar level chart
Blood sugar level chart compare the blood sugar values and is devided in three categories
1. Random blood sugar 
2. Fasting blood sugar and
3. Postprandial blood sugar 

In Random blood sugar level test normal blood sugar levels are 70 - 140 mg / dL. Random blood glucose level between 140 - 200 mg / dL may designate a prediabetic condition and Fasting bloodstream sugar level above 200 mg / dL diagnoses diabetes.

In Fasting blood sugar level test regular blood sugar are 70 - 100 mg / dL. Fasting blood sugars level between 101 - 125 mg / dL may diagnose a prediabetic condition and Fasting bloodstream glucose level above 125 mg / dL designates diabetes.

In Post Postprandial blood sugar level (PP) check normal blood sugar levels are 70 - 140 mg / dL. Post Postprandial bloodstream sugar level between 140 - 200 mg / dL may specify a prediabetic condition and Fasting blood sugars level above 200 mg / dL diagnoses diabetes.

The sugar level chart values is referred from Indian Counsel of Medical research and WHO.

Where can you diagnose diabetes?
You can get checked in a health care clinic. Alternatively, there are community wellness camps can also be good site to check your random blood sugar. If the test reading falls under normal blood sugar chart, then you may choose retesting after 3 years for previously diagnosis. In case check reading falls under prediabetes, you should test your sugar levels annually. Besides additional risk factors such as for example high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and CVD should also be diagnosed for and treated.

How to confirm diabetes analysis>

Following is the diagnosis criteria for diabetes.
  • Symptoms of diabetes mentioned above plus random bloodstream sugar above 200 mg/dl
  • More than 126 mg/dL of fasting blood glucose level
  • 2 hour post 75 g oral glucose tolerance test over200 mg/dl
  • HbA1C (Glycated Haemoglobin) above 6.5%

If any of the two readings above is confirmed when compared against sugar level chart, then this confirms the diabetes diagnosis.

Conditions for the Diagnosis of Prediabetes

The term “prediabetes” refers to a situation where in fact the blood glucose levels are greater than normal, but not high enough to warrant a diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes consists of two entities viz. impaired fasting blood sugar (IFG) and impaired sugar tolerance (IGT). The diagnostic requirements for diabetes and prediabetes is as follows when put next in sugar level chart.
  • Random blood sugar levels between 140 - 200 mg / dL.
  • Fasting blood sugar between 101 - 125 mg / dL.
  • Post Postprandial blood sugar levels (PP) between 140 - 200 mg / dL.
If you have random sugar amounts between 140-199mg/dl after that it is advised to undergo Oral Glucose Tolerance test (OGTT).

Preparations for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
  •      Person to be tested ought to be on a normal diet (with at least 200 g carbohydrate/ day) for in least 3 days before the check. 
  •     The test should be done after an overnight fast of 8-10 hours and comprises of two blood samples: fasting and 2 hours after taking glucose. 
  •      Following the collection of the fasting bloodstream sample for analysis of plasma glucose, the individual is given 75 g of blood sugar (1.75 g/ kg bodyweight for children to a maximum of 75 g) mixed with around 250 ml of water. The sugar ought to be drunk within a period of 5 minutes. The second blood sample should be collected after 2 hours of glucose load. The subject should be resting and refrain from smoking in between the two test collections.

Diet Kundali is a calorie calculator and nutrition calculator app that gives nutritional status of your monthly diet that can be compared with recommended ideals to keep diabetes at bay. We also provide diet graph for diabetes, pre-diabetes, cholesterol control and weight loss.


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